Understanding Referencing Part II | TouchDesigner

14497860106_434af77e0f_mI love me some referencing. The more you work with TouchDesigner, the more you’ll find that you need a solid understanding of how referencing connects the various parts of your network. Better still is getting a better handle on how Python scripting works in TouchDesigner – especially dot notation. At the heart of what we’re after is making sure that our networks can start to feel a little more interconnected. Hard coding values makes for tedious programming, especially if you’re building something you’d like to reuse. By starting to think about how to build some logic into the system we’re making we begin to build reusable tools. If you’re still getting a handle on how referencing works, then it’s a good idea to get started here (Understanding Referencing) to get your bearings.

Let’s start with a simple example. I’ve got five images that I’d like to cycle through when I click a button. I know that I can use a Count CHOP and a Switch TOP to help with this but how can I make it so that my Count CHOP knows when I add another input to my Switch TOP? In a perfect world I could add or remove images or movies, and the network would just “know” what was going on, right? So how can we program something like this? Let’s start by taking a moment to visit my favorite part of working with TouchDesigner, the wiki. Specifically we need to look at our Switch TOP’s page.

switch top PAGE

The most important part of this page for us today is here at the top where it says “switchTOP_Class” next to the Python symbol. In object-oriented programming a class is a kind of “extensible template for creating objects.” The exciting part of knowing this is that a class comes with all sorts of methods and values that we can quickly call when scripting. With that in mind let’s take a closer look at the Switch TOP Class page. At this point you’re either beside yourself with excitement, or weeping with confusion. Let’s take a look at a quick example, and see if we can make some sense out of what we’re reading.

One of the first things on the Switch TOP Class page is a sentence that says “This class inherits from the TOP class.” This means that there are several things that work for the Switch TOP that also work for all TOPs. This means we can practice on a regular movie in TOP, and what we learn should also work for our Switch TOP. Okay, let’s open up a new network in TouchDesigner, and let’s add a movie in TOP and a Text DAT. We’ll also need to open up our Textport.

textport

When you open your textport you should see a floating window that looks like this:

textport windowGreat! With your Movie In TOP, Text DAT, and Textport you should be looking at something like this:

movie in and text

In our Text DAT we’re going to write a very simple little script that’s going to print in our textport. In Python we can print something to the textport with the command print(). Whatever we put in the parenthesis gets printed to the textport. You can practice this in the textport, just make sure that you use quotes around your text. For example:

print(“hello world”)

helloworld

We can also complete this same operation using our text DAT. In the text DAT write:

print(“hello world”)

hello world DAT

Now right click on the DAT, and select “Run Script” from the drop down menu. You should see the text appear in your textport:

hello world gifCongratulations, you just ran a Python Script from a Text DAT. We’re going to use our ability to print to the textport to learn a few more things about our TOP class. We should still have a Movie In TOP in our network. My Movie In TOP is called “moviein1″, knowing the name of our operators is how we call point to them when we’re referencing. Looking back to the general TOP Class Wiki Page, I can see that there’s a member called width and one called height.

members

For this next step we’re going to use dot notation to get to the width and height information about our operator. For example, I can get that information by starting with the operator name, followed by a dot, followed by the member I want:

op(‘moviein1′).width

Let’s copy that exact line of code into our Text DAT. Next right click, and select Run Script. Nothing happened… what gives?! In this case, just because we asked for that value, doesn’t mean that TouchDesigner knew that we wanted it to be printed to the text port. In order to see these values in the textport we need to encapsulate our script in the print command. When you do this, you should have a script that looks like this:

print(op(‘moviein1′).width)

Now if you run the script you should see:

print width

Let’s try one more. Let’s add one more line of code:

print(op(‘moviein1′).height)

Let’s run the script one more time and you should have something that looks like this:

width and height

Believe it or not, we just made some huge progress. Understanding how dot notation works gives you access to a HUGE treasure trove of information that you can use when scripting or writing references.

Let’s return to our example and see if we can’t use what we’ve just learned. Let’s start by adding a few things to our network. I’m going to add five Text TOPs, and I’m going to set them to be the numbers 1 – 5. Next I’m going to wire all of those to a Switch TOP, and then finally to a Null TOP,

text tops

Now let’s add a Text DAT to our network, and then take a quick moment to go back to our Switch TOP Class Page. Of particular interest to me is the Connections subsection:

connections

Using what we just learned, write the following script into your text DAT:

print(op(‘switch1′).inputs)

When you run this script you should see something like this:

print inputs

Well, that doesn’t look useful at all, does it? In fact, it’s tremendously useful! Python uses lists to store information, and what we’ve printed out is a list of connections to the Switch TOP. We don’t really want all of this information that we’re getting about the inputs, we just want to know how many connections there are. As luck would have it, there’s a way to get just that information. In Python we can ask for the length (the number of entries) of a list with the len() command. Alright, let’s make a quick change to our script and add the length command. You should have a script now that looks like this:

print(len(op(‘switch1′).inputs))

When you run the script you should see this:

print len

Alright! Now we can start to really make some magic happen. Using .inputs and the len() command we’re able to now see the number of connections to our switch TOP. If you disconnect one of the inputs and run the command again you’ll see the number go down. Add a few more inputs, run the command, and you’ll see the number go up.

How do we use this? Okay, well let’s think back to where we started. We want to use a button to toggle through all of our inputs, and then cycle back to the front of the line. Let’s add a Button component to our Network, and a Count CHOP. Make sure to wire the Button to the top most input on the Count CHOP:

button count

Let’s also make sure that the button is set to momentary:

button momentary

Looking at our Count CHOP we want to set the Limit Method to “Loop Min/Max.” For the Limit Maximum value we’re going to use the script that we just wrote (only without the print command). We’re also going to subtract 1 from that number. We do this because 0 is still a valid input number for our switch, so while there are five total inputs those are associated with the numbers 0 1 2 3 4. The reference in the Limit Maximum field should look like this:

len(op(‘switch1′).inputs) – 1

Your Count CHOP parameters dialog should look something like this:

count CHOP

And now we have a little bit of black magic happening. If you add more inputs to your switch you’ll see the Limit Maximum number go up automatically, remove some inputs, and you’ll see it go down. Clicking on the button should cycle you through all of the inputs:

count click

Now you know a little more about referencing, dot notation, and how to find more information in the wiki. Happy programming!

Check out the TOE file if you’d like to see what I made: Referencing Part 2

 

 

 

Rendering | TouchDesigner

9054478576_75010c3c62If you spend much time programming in TouchDesigner, eventually you’ll want to start doing some real-time rendering. When dealing with rendering some 3D geometry we need to get a few pieces of our network correctly set-up to get started. There are, of course, lots of different methods for rendering but we can get started with some rendering basics.

Like working in any rendering environment, we need a few things in place to actually draw an image. We need to have the actual object that we want to draw, we need a light source (not always, but for now let’s pretend), and we need to know where we are looking at the scene from. In TouchDesigner we can think of these elements in the following way:

Geometry Component - this is our object that we’re drawing. This component holds a Surface Operator (SOP), that is the object we are drawing.

Camera Component – this is the vantage point we are drawing out scene from.

Light Component – this is our light source for our scene. There are some cases where we don’t need a light, but it’s a good rule of thumb to assume that you’ll need to light your scene.

Render TOP – this texture operator is the drawing / video that is the result of your render set-up. This is the TOP that you’ll end up using in your network / performance / etc.

Using these three components and one operator, we end up with a basic network set-up that looks something like this:

basic Render Set-up

At this point you’re probably familiar with patch cords (called wires in TouchDesigner’s official documentation) that connect operators within a single family (CHOPs, TOPs, SOPs, DATs, etc), but you may not be as familiar with the dotted lines with arrows that you see in the image above. These are called data links, and their visibility can be toggled on and off with the short cut key “x”. Unlike wires, data links help us see when operators from different families are connected in some way. We can also see if data is actively being passed through these connections – if the arrow head is moving, then new information is being passed, static arrows tell us that we’re not actively passing new data.

Let’s take a look at a quick example – here we can see that the Geo is constantly sending information to the render TOP. When we change the position of the camera Comp, we can see the arrow heads move. While this might not seem like something worth caring about in this very moment, there will surely come a day when you’re debugging a scene and the ability to quickly see what’s passing new data and what’s not will be the blessing that helps you keep your sanity.

passing data

Let’s take a moment to give our Render TOP a closer look. The Render TOP has five different pages of parameters, and while all of them are important we can start by looking at the Render Page and the Common Page.

render page

The Render page contains all of the information about what components we’re currently using. Here we can see that we’re using cam1 as our Camera, * as our Geometry, and * as our Lights. What is this gibberish? Our Render TOP follows many of the pattern matching rules as the rest of TouchDesigner. In this case a * means, “any geometry component.” You can test this by adding another geo to your scene. You’ll see another set of data link lines drawn to the Render TOP, but you won’t see another torus. Why? Well, you won’t see another Torus because it’s being drawn in exactly the same dimensions in the same place.

second torus

At this point you could tell your Render TOP which Geo to use by typing in the name of the Geo component. For example, if we write “geo1″ in our Geometry Field we’ll only see data links drawn from geo1 to our Render TOP.

geo1

Why do we care about this? This is useful as it has large scale implications for lots of different rendering situations – advanced lighting, camera actions, etc. This also gives you a way to divvy up rendering between TOPs and composite the video later.

In addition to the Render Page, we should also take a moment to look at the Common Page.

common page

On the common page we can specify the resolution of our final image, as well as a few other parameters. Rendering can be a very GPU heavy task, so keeping an eye on your rendering resolution can be extremely helpful in managing the performance of your network. Alright, with all of that general information out of the way, let’s make something with our new found knowledge. Let’s start by rendering a simple sphere.

We can begin by opening up an empty network and adding a Camera COMP, a Geometry COMP, a Light COMP, and a Render TOP. This should now be looking very familiar.

basic Render Set-up

This, however, is not a sphere… this is a Torus, so how do we change what we’re drawing? To do that we need to look inside of our Geometry Component. Using either the quick key or the zoom method let’s take a look inside of our Geo.

lonely torus

Here inside of our Geometry is just a single lonely torus. We should also notice that the display and render flags for this SOP are turned on. What we can learn from what we’re seeing here is that whatever is in the Geo Component with a render flag (purple) turned on will be used when rendering our scene. As a note about efficiency, we can technically render any SOP without placing it inside of a Geometry COMP. The difference is that SOPs located in a TouchDesigner network outside of a Geo are rendered on the CPU, while SOPs inside of a Geo are rendered on the GPU. Generally, the most efficient use of your system’s resources is going to be achieved by making sure that you’re taking as much advantage of your GPU as possible.

Inside of our Geo lets make a few changes. We can start by deleting the Torus SOP. Next lets add a Sphere SOP, a Box SOP, and a Null SOP. For now lets wire the Sphere SOP to the Null, and turn on the display and render flags for the Null as well. When you’re done you should have something that looks like this:

box and sphere

Now if we zoom out of our Geo we can see that we’re rendering a Sphere instead of a Torus.

Sphere from parent

Suppose that we want to see the box instead? To do that we would zoom inside of the Geo, and wire the Box to the Null instead of the Sphere. This is a prime example of how the use of a Null can be powerful in programming in TouchDeigner. If our geometry chain was much more complicated, or if we wanted to further change our source Surface Operator we could make all of those changes up steam of the Null. Practically this would mean that all of the alterations that were made did not require any changes in order to be targeted for rendering. Let’s take a look at how this might work using a single Null. First let’s add a Merge SOP to our chain, we’ll wire both the Box SOP and the Sphere SOP the Merge, and then wire the Merge to the Null. When we’re done we should have something that looks like this:

merge SOP

Well, surely something has gone wrong, right? No. Things are just as they’re supposed to be, it just happens that our Box in currently located inside of our Sphere. Let’s change the origin position of our Sphere and our Box so they’re not overlapping. To do this lets start with our Sphere. Clicking on the Sphere SOP let’s start by changing its radius to 0.5 for x y and z, and changing its center to -1 0 0.

Sphere trans

Next let’s change the origin of our Box to 1 0 0.

box size

Now we should be seeing something like this:

box and sphere merge

Alright. Now let’s back out of our Geo.

Box and sphere from parent

Excellent. Now we’re getting somewhere. Okay. This is all well and good, but what if I want to have different kinds of materials associated with my Geometry? Our last stop on looking at what we can do with our Geometry Component is going to be materials. Let’s click on our Geo and look at the Render Page. Here you’ll notice that you can assign a material to your geo.

geo render page

How does that work? Well let’s start by adding a material to our scene. Lets add a Phong, a Constant, and a Wireframe so we can see how each of them work.

mats

You can assign a material to a geo by dragging and dropping it onto the geo, or by typing the name of the material into the Material Field. Let’s start by assigning our Phong1 to our geo1.

phong1

Well, that’s a subtle change. A Phong shader comes along with some lovely tools for shaded and more realistic rendering. That’s a topic all to itself, so for now let’s just look at how we can change the color of our Phong. On the RGB page of our Phong let’s click on the diffuse swatch, and change our color.

phong color

You’ll notice here that it’s changed the color of both our Box and our Sphere. The material that we apply to our Geo will be allied to all of the contents of our component. We can definitely apply different materials to different portions of our geo, but we’ll talk about that another day. If you’re feeling adventurous take some time to play with some of the different settings here in the Phong Mat.

Next let’s look at what happens when we apply the Constant.

constant MAT

Here we can see that the constant applies a single color to the whole surface of our Geo. It’s worth noting that at this point that we don’t need a Light Component when using a constant as a material. Unlike a Phong which uses a light source when rendering, the constant just emits constant color. Just like the Phong, we can also change the color of our constant. Let’s take a moment to try that out. Just like with the Phong you’ll click on the Constant, and look at the Constant Page:

constant color

Alright, now it’s time to look at what happens when we apply the Wireframe to our Geo.

wireframe

The wireframe, like the constant, does not require a light in the scene to be rendered. In my opinion, some of the most interesting work comes out of mixed materials in rendering – combining phongs and constants, phongs and wireframes, et cetera. You’ll remember that back when we were putting our scene together we merged our Sphere and our Box. The diagonal line connecting them in the wireframe illustrates how they’re still connected. Before we leave the wireframe material let’s change just a few things. Like with our Phong and Constant, we can change the color. We can also change the thickness of the line. Let’s take a closer look at the Wireframe Page of the parameters and make some changes.

wireframe attributes

Let’s take a quick look at what our Camera can do for us. First, I’m going to switch back to the Phong as a material. In our Camera settings let’s move back slightly, and set our z rotation to me.time.absFrame.

camera settings

 

Manipulating our camera changes our relationship to the geo in our scene, giving us the ability to shift our perspective. We can further alter this relationship by adding a Null Comp to our scene. After we add the Null Comp let’s tell our Camera Comp to look at the Null. We can do this by typing in the name of the Null in the Look At field in the Xform page of the Camera’s parameters:

look at null

Okay, so why do this? Well, before when we altered our camera’s location it was only pointed straight ahead. By adding a null for the camera to look at, we now have a focal point that we can manipulate. This is especially apparent if we translate our camera in either the x or y dimensions. Even thought the camera is moving left / right or up / down, it still stays pointed at our sphere and box.

pointed at a null

Alright, let’s wrap this up by quickly looking at what our lighting has to offer us. Like all of the other Components we’ve looked at in this post, we are just scratching the surface of what’s possible. This look at rendering is intended just to get you started on the basics. Lets start by looking in the Light page of the Light’s Parameters.

lightTake some time to play with the color and dimmer settings the light to get started. When you’ve got a sense of how those work, the next attribute to take a closer look at is the Light Type. I’m going to change color of my light to a soft mauve, the light type to cone, and the cone angle to 8.

light play

Now that you have a rough idea of what goes into rendering a scene in TouchDesigner, it’s your turn to play and discover. Happy real-time rendering. Want to see what I made, look at the Rendering TOE File.

Understanding Referencing | TouchDesigner

referencingReferencing is one of the most powerful tools at the programmer’s disposal in TouchDesigner. Referencing creates a direct link between two or more floats or integers. This allows you to link operators that are outside of their respective families – normally you can only connect CHOPs to CHOPs and TOPs to TOPs, but referencing allows you to create connections between nearly any operators. There are a number of way to create these links with references or expressions. In many of the other posts that I’ve written I often write about using expressions and references, but haven’t taken much time to talk in depth about what this is, how how it all works. Let’s change that.

I started thinking about this when I saw a post on the Derivative forum from a new user struggling with understanding what I’d written in some earlier tutorials. Expressions are something that I continue to learn more about, and open up all sorts of opportunities for faster, more streamlined, and more elegant programming. Let’s start by looking at the typical kinds of referencing that you might do on any project. Specifically, let’s look at how we might connect one family of operators to another. In this example we’ll look at connecting a CHOP to a TOP, and all of the different ways we might do that.

all reference typesIn the image above we actually are referencing the same CHOP in four different ways. We can start this by first talking about how we connect two operators from different families. In this example I’m going to use a noise CHOP and a circle TOP. I want to use the sudo random noise from the noise CHOP to drive the vertical position of my circle in my circle TOP. There are a two major ways that we can make this connection: dragging and dropping the CHOP onto the TOP, or writing an expression that connects the two of them. I often opt for writing the expression – I do this because I think it’s good practice, and has helped me better understand the syntax and structure of using expression in references. We’ll take a look at both of these methods.

Let’s start with the drag and drop method. To use the drag and drop method we need the source operator to be viewer active (there are some exceptions, but it’s a good rule of thumb that your source probably needs to be viewer active to do this). We can make an operator viewer active by clicking on the + symbol in the bottom right corner, or by holding down the alt key (holding alt will make all operators viewer active). You can tell an operator is viewer active because the color coded border disappears, and usually a portion of it is highlighted when you mouse over the operator.

viewer activeLet’s take a moment to better understand the anatomy of an operator while we have this example handy. On the left upper corner of the operator we have a few different toggle switches – viewer, clone immune, bypass, and lock. Along the very bottom of our operator we have it’s name (you can make changes to this field), any flags associated with the operator family, and the viewer active toggle. Having a solid sense of the anatomy of your operators becomes increasingly important the longer you work with TouchDesigner.

Alright, now that we know how to toggle our viewer active mode on and off, and know a little more about our operators’ anatomy lets look at how to build a reference. Let’s make a noise CHOP in our network as well as a Circle TOP. With the Noise CHOP viewer active, click on the name “chan1″ in the viewer, and drag it to the Y parameter of the Circle TOP (I’ve made my circle a little smaller, to make this easier to see):

exportAs you do this you should see a drop down menu appear, let’s select “Export CHOP” from the list. You should now see the Y position (or center 2) changed to a green color. You should also see some text that shows up as well. Here’s a closer look at just the paramater we’ve changed in the circle TOP:

export CHOPLooking closer we can see that the text reads: noise_active:chan1. Great, but what does that mean?! Well, if we take a closer look at our Noise CHOP we can see that I changed the name of that operator to “noise_active” – we also see that the name of our noise channel is “chan1″. If we were to abstract what we’re seeing in the export language we might write something like this:

source_operator_name:source_channel_name

Exporting is a fine way to connect operators, but it’s not my personal favorite. I say this because exporting creates a locked relationship. Once you’ve done this you can’t change the text in the target operator. Exporting creates a much more permanent relationship between your operators. To remove the export you’ll need to right click on the parameter filed and select “remove export.” Surely there’s a better way to connect operators?!

In fact, there are still three more ways to connect operators. Taking a closer look at the drop down menu that appears when we use the drag and drop method we see the following that there are several Methods:

current valueAll of these are ways that we can connect two operators together, and many of them yield the same results, so what gives:

  • Export CHOP – we’ve already seen this method, and we know that one of its limitations is that it creates a fixed relationship between two operators. This is excellent for creating something more finished for locked in nature.
  • Text – Text exports the pathway to a particular channel.
  • Current CHOP Value – this exports the value of the operator in question at the precise moment that you drag and drop. Rather than a continually updating value this is just a single float or integer.
  • Relative CHOP Reference – the relative reference exports a python expression that points to the operator being referenced. A relative makes for easy cutting and pasting so long as the network hierarchy relationships remain constant between operators.
  • CHOP Reference (sometimes called Absolute Reference) – the absolute reference also creates a python expression pointing to an operator. The difference here is that it includes the precise pathway to the operator in question making cutting and pasting a bit more frustrating.

For now we’ll take a pass on the “Text” and “Current CHOP Value” options as these have more limited uses. Let’s now take a close look at our Relative and Absolute Reference options.

Relative Referencing

Let’s go ahead and make another circle in our network, and this time let’s create a relative reference between our noise CHOP and our circle TOP.

relative referenceTaking a closer look at our expression we can see that it reads:

op(“noise1″)[“chan1″]

Okay, what does this mean? Lets start by looking at the syntax of this expression. First we can see that we’re looking for an operator. We know this because our expression starts with op(). Next comes the name of the operator in quotation marks. As an important note, Python doesn’t care if you use double quotes or single quotes so long as they match. This means that “noise1″ and ‘noise1′ are both equal and produce the same results; ‘noise1″ or “noise1′ however will not work. Finally we see the name of the channel in question in brackets and in quotes – [“chan1″]. This means that our syntax looks something like operator(“exact_name_of_operator”)[“desired_channel”]. Okay, let’s look at another example to make sure we have a firm understanding of how relative referencing works.

Let’s make a Constant CHOP. Let’s name change the name of the constant to “fruits” and name the first three channels, “apple” “pear” and “lemon”. You should have something that looks like this:

fruit constantAlright, now lets add a circle TOP to our network. This time, instead of using the drag and drop method we’ll write out the Python expression to create a reference to our constant. We’ll start by referencing our apple channel. This means our expression is going to be:

op(‘fruits’)[‘apple’]

You can write this directly in the expression directly in the target parameter field for the target operator. When you’re done you should have something like this:

fruits topIf you drag the slider in the constant CHOP to the right, you should now see the circle move up in the viewer. So we’ve successfully connected our circle TOP to the apple channel, why is this any better than just exporting? Well, let’s say that for whatever reason you change your mind while you’re programming and decide that instead you’d prefer for the circle TOP to be connected to the “pear” channel? Written as an expression we can make that change simply by deleting “apple” and replacing it with “pear” or “lemon”. Our expressions then would be:

op(‘fruits’)[‘pear’]
op(‘fruits’)[‘lemon’]

Additionally, if we’ve written a reference as an expression we write some math directly into our reference. We might, for example, only want half of the value coming out of the apple channel. In this case we’d write the expression:

op(‘fruits’)[‘apple’] * 0.5

This would divide ever value in half, changing our scaling from 0 – 1 to 0 – 0.5 instead. We can also use this method to multiply a channel by another channel. For example maybe we want to create a relationship between two different channels from our fruits constant. We might write the expression:

op(‘fruits’)[‘apple’] * op(‘fruits’)[‘lemon’]

You could just as easily do this with a Math CHOP, but you might find that just writing the expression is faster, simpler, or more tidy.

Before we move on, there are two more modifiers that we need to know when writing relative references:

./
../

What on earth are these all about? Well, these are handy directory pointers. At some point you will surely end up wanting to reference an operator that is another part of your network – a control panel, a material, a slider, you name it – if you program in Touch long enough, you’re gonna need these. So what do they mean:

./  – this modifier means the network inside of me
../  – this modifier means in the network above me

If you’re scratching your head, that’s okay. Let’s look at an example. Let’s say that we have a Geometry component, and inside of it we have placed a material – a constant that’s red. A relative reference for that material would be “./constant1″. This means, look inside of me for the material called “constant1″.

constant1So how does ../ work then? Imagine that you’d like the alpha of the constant in our geo to be connected to the noise in our parent network. Here we can write a reference that looks like this:

op(‘../noise1′)[‘chan1′]

Here’s what that would look like:

dot dot slash

Absolute References

Now that we understand what relative references are, what are absolute References? Unlike relative references, absolute references require the entire network path to an operator. In the case of our noise and circle example, that means that our reference looks like this:

op(“references/noise1″)[“chan1″]

absoluteAbsolute references require that you know exactly where in your network you’re referencing an operator from, because you have to use the entire network path. That sounds like a pain, so why use them? Well, let’s imagine that you’re building a complex program and you’re trying to be as tidy and organized as possible. You might build a large change of your user interface in a single location. This means that all of the sliders, buttons, and menus that are being called all live in the same container. In this case, using an absolute reference makes good programming sense. Relative references will leave you constantly trying to figure out how many ../ to use when referencing your user interface. Absolute calls don’t require this, as they point to a very specific place in the network. You can even simplify this by making sure that all of your buttons and sliders are joined with a merge CHOP.

To get a better sense of how this works, download the example .toe file and look at the last example that’s driven by sliders that control the level TOP. There’s lots more to learn about expressions, but practicing your references will help you begin to understand the syntax and logic of how they work.

Download this example toe to learn and explore some more – referencing toe

 

 

 

Let’s Make this Table Data Move | TouchDesigner

14285147532_9f75f63f29_nWorking with live streaming data is about as good as it gets when it comes to programming – this is especially true if you’re working on a project that looks to create a recognizable relationship between live data and media. What, then, is a person to do when placed in a situation without access to a live source of data? Whatever the project, the best way to tackle this problem is to find a source of prerecorded information. If you’re working on something like motion tracking, using a pre-recorded video is an excellent solution to this problem. What about sensors that aren’t image based? What if I’m dealing with a series of floats? What happens if those floats just come to me in a table? How can I take a series of recorded data points that live in an text file and make them move? That’s exactly one of the problems that came up for me recently, and I’ve got a handy trick that will make it easy to work with a data set in a table as though it were streaming into your TouchDesigner network live.

To get started, we need a file with some data in it. I made a quick spreadsheet with two columns. One starts at 0.01 and goes up to 1, awhile the other column starts at .99 and counts down to 0. If you’re following along, you can download that text file here (tabledata). In broad terms, what were going to make is a simple network of operators that moves through a table, pulling one row of data at a time, and then converting that table information into CHOP data. We can see where we’re headed if we look at our whole completed network:

whole networkSo what’s happening here? In the DAT called “data” we have a table of recorded values. Next I use a select to remove the header row from the data, and another select to move through the rows of data. Using another table, a transpose, and a merge gives us a table that’s easy to convert into a CHOP. Now that we have a general sense of what’s happening in this network, let’s dig-in and get to work.

We’ll start by adding a Table DAT to an empty network. Rather than entering data by hand, we can instead just point TouchDesigner to a file that we want it to use. In the Table DAT’s parameters dialogue we’ll click on the plus button to the right of the “file” field and then locate the file that we’re looking to use.

tableDATIn order to see our table data we need to click on the button “Reload File” so that our table will be populated with the information from the file that we’re using. Next we’re going to use a few Select DATs to manipulate the contents of our table. We’re going to use the first select to remove the header row of our table. To set this up, we’ll set our select to extract rows by index, starting at 1.

select1

You’ll also notice that specifying that we’re extracting rows by index turns on a End Row Index value that’s driven by an expression (me.inputs[0].numRows – 1). We’re going to use the logic from this expression a little later on, so tuck that into the back of your mind for just a moment.

Next we’ll use another Select Table to move through the rows of our table. In adding another Select, let’s again set it up to extract Rows by Index. This time, however, we’re going to change the value of the start row and end row index to be the same. Doing things, you should notice that we get only one row of our table. Try changing the values of these parameters – as long as both fields contain the same number you’ll see only one row of information. We’ll animate that in just a moment taking advantage of this.

select2

The next operator that we’ll add to this network is a Transpose DAT. A transpose will change rows into columns, giving us a result that’s two rows, rather than two columns of data.

transpose

While just these changing values are ultimately what I’m after, I would also like my values to have names. To do this I’m going to add another table DAT, creating two rows: xPos and yPos. I’m going to use a Merge DAT to combine these two tables – to make this work properly we’ll need to set the Merge to append columns. When we’re doing we should have something that looks like this:

merge

Alright, not that we have our DAT string’s set up, let’s animate this table, and look at how to get some CHOP data out of these DATs. First let’s start by adding a Constant CHOP to our network. Let’s give our first channel a useful name, and then call our absolute frame count (me.time.absFrame).

constantWhy use absolute frame? I’d like a steadily increasing integer that can be used to drive our progression through the rows of our table. Our absolute frame is an excellent candidate for this need – except that I don’t want to exceed the maximum number of rows in my table. To do this let’s add a Limit CHOP. First up I’ll need to set this Operator to Loop, I’ll also want to set this operator to start at 0 (Minimum).

lmit

For the maximum value, I want to use the total number of rows in our second table (the table that contained only data, without a header). I could hard-code this by entering 200 into the Maximum parameter of our Limit, but then I have to change this number whenever my table changes. A better solution would be to use an expression to pull this number from the table in question – which is exactly what that expression we saw earlier does. The expression we want to use then for our Maximum parameter is: op(‘select1′).numRows.

limit2

Now it’s the moment we’ve been waiting for. Lets make that table move! To do this we’ll use the row counter in to drive our location in our table – we’ll write some relative references in our select2 DAT to make this happen. In the Start Row and End Row Index values let’s use the reference op(‘limit1′)[‘row’] to drive the change in our table.

limit3

The last step here is to add a DAT to CHOP to our network. We’ll add this at the end of our network, and drag the target DAT onto the CHOP.

dat to CHOP

There we have it. We’ve just taken a static table full of data, and turned it into a channel data that changes over time. For extra credit, add a Trail CHOP to the DAT to see what your data looks like.

trail

 

Geometric Landscapes | TouchDesigner

rolling landscapeWorking on a new piece to premiere in Mexico I spent a lot of time experimenting with creating landscapes and backgrounds. Searching for a way into this exploration I wanted to play with the idea of instancing objects in 3D space, and the illusion of moving and shifting planes in space. This is already a popular visual style, and I was wanted to try my hand at exploring what it might look like to make something like this in TouchDesigner.

I’ve talked about instancing before, and so this challenge seemed like something that would be both fun, and interesting to play with. I also wanted something that mixed material methods – shaded, flat, and wire frame in appearance. Let’s take a look at how we can making something interesting happen using these ideas as a starting point.

Rendering is going to make or break us when thinking about how to set up this project, with that in mind it’s important to remember that a typcially rendering set-up needs something to be rendered (some geometry), a perspective from which to draw the object(s) (a camera), and a light source (a light, we don’t always need a light but as a rule of thumb it’s good to think that we need one). Our Geometry, Light, and Camera are all components, while our render operator is a Texture Operator (TOP). As a point of reference, here’s what a generic rendering set-up looks like:

classic render setup

We can tell our Render TOP to look at multiple Geometry Components, in the same network, or we can nest our active surfaces inside of a single GEO. Much of this depends on what you’re looking to create. The most important thing to consider is that surfaces operators (SOPs) are computed on the CPU unless placed inside of Geometry COMP – placed inside of a Geo they’re computed on the GPU instead. This makes a huge difference in your performance, and as a best practice it’s good to place any rendered geometry inside of a Geo.

Now let’s take a look at what our rendering set-up is going to look like for making our geometric landscape:

rolling landscape render set-up

Here we can see that we have a similar set-up on the left – a light, a geo, a camera, and a Render TOP. On the right I’ve got the geometry viewer open so we can see a little more about the relationship in the scene of the camera, light, and geometry. We can see that the camera is set above our geometry looking down, we can also see that we have a cone light set-up with a wide angle and a wide delta.

Now that we have a general sense of what we’re making let’s dig-in and make something interesting.

Lets start with an empty network. Lets start by adding a Geo to our network.

geo

To get started we’ll need to dive inside of geo to start making some changes. You can do this by double clicking on the Geo, using the quick key “i” (shortcut for inside), or by scroll wheel zooming into your geo. Inside our Geo we’ll see a torus that has it’s render and display flag set (the small blue and purple circles on the surface operator).

Inside of our geo let’s start by frist deleting the Torus SOP. Next let’s add a Grid SOP. Our grid is going to act the key generative element for us inside of this network – it’s going to give our surface its wire texture, the shading on the surface, and the location of where our spheres get placed. Our Grid is the central piece of what we’re making, and we’ll how in just a bit. Once we’ve added a grid to our network, we need to make a few changes to some its properties. First we want to make sure that it’s set to be a Polygon for Primitive type; we want to make sure that our orientation is set to ZX Plane; finally we want to change the size to 20 x 20.

grid setup

Next we’ll connect our Gird SOP to a Noise SOP. We’re going to use the Noise SOP to drive some of the shifting locations of the points in our grid. Before we move on, let’s make one quick change, On the Transform page in the Noise SOP’s parameter’s we can see that the translate z parameter is set to change with the second count of our project – me.time.seconds. This is excellent, and it keeps our noise animated over time, but it also means that we’re only working with 600 samples (in a default TouchDesigner network) because me.time.seconds is locked to our timeline. If, instead, we want noise that doesn’t have a hiccup every 10 seconds, we can instead use the call me.time.absSeconds. This uses the absolute number of seconds that TouchDesigner has been running to drive the transformations in the noise SOP. It’s a small change, but makes for a nicer look (at least in my opinion).

noise SOP

Next we’ll add a Material SOP to the our network. Our material SOP is going to allow us to assign a material to our grid. We’ll do this by also adding a Wireframe Material to our network. Before we assign our wireframe to our material we should see something like this:

before assignment

To assign the wireframe to the material, we’re just going to drag and drop the MAT onto the SOP.

assign MAT

Finally, we’re going to end this string by adding a Null SOP, making sure to turn on the render and display flags.

wire null

At this point we’ve made the Wireframe outlined elements of our grid. We’re now going to use the same data stream that we’ve already programmed to help us create a another layer of texture, and to create the locations for our spheres. Let’s start by adding our spheres to the network. To do this we’re going to do some instancing. When we’re instancing we need some location information for where to generate the copies of our source geometry. To get this information we’re going to use a SOP to CHOP to convert our SOP information into CHOP data.

SOPtoNow before we move on we need to change gears for just a moment. What we’re going to do next is to add another Geo inside of our current Geo – in Russian Nesting Doll Fashion. Why? Well, we’re going to do this in order to take advantage of the Geo’s ability to instance. Why not use the Copy SOP? I love me some Copy SOP action, but in this case the use of instancing is more efficient for this particular activity.

So, let’s add another Geo to our network:

new geo

Next we’re going to replace the torus inside of this Geo with a sphere. We’re also going to add a material inside of the geo. Easy, right? I’m going to set my sphere to be pretty small ( 0.09, 0.09, 0.09 ), I’m also going to make sure that I connect my sphere to a Null (in case I want to make any other changes), and then turn on the Null’s display and render flags. Finally I’m going to add a constant Material. When we’re all said and done you should have something like this:

inside the sphere

Excellent. Now we we back out of this nested Geo we should see just a single sphere. What?! Well, now we can set the Geo to instance – my favorite part.

small sphere

Let’s start by taking a look at the parameters of our Geo. Specifically, we want to look at the Instance page. Here we first need to turn on Instancing. Next we’re going to tell our Geo to look at the CHOP called sopto1. Finally we’ll set the TX, TY, and TZ parameters to correspond to the channels called tx, ty, and tz. If this seems like crazy talk, that’s okay – check out the picture below and it should make more sense:

instance page

We also want to head to Render Page of the Geo, and set this geo to use the material ./constant1 (this means, use the material inside of this geo called constant1 – ./ is a directory pointer indicating where to look for the thing in question, in this case a constant).

constant

Alright, now we can finally see some of our handy work – you should now see a sphere instanced at each of the vertices of the grid that we’re transforming with noise.

Spheres

Now let’s kick it up a notch. Now we’re going to add another Geo to our network.

last geo

We’re going to treat this Geo slightly differently. Inside let’s add an In SOP and a Phong Material. On our SOP In let’s make sure that the display and render flags are turned on, and for your SOP choose a nice dark color – I’m choosing a deep crimson.

geo3

The In SOP allows us to pass in the geometry that we’ve already made, acting as a kind of short-cut for us. When we go back to our Geo we just need to make sure that we’ve set our Render material to be ./phong1 – like with our constant this is the pathway to and the name of the material we want to use.

geo3mat

Alright, now you should have a network that looks something like this:

complete geo network

Now we’re ready to move out of our Geo and get ready to render our scene. Zooming out of our Geo we should see a network that looks something like this:

work space

In order to render our scene we need to revisit what we talked about at the beginning of the post – we need to add a Camera, a Light, and a Render TOP. Let’s go ahead and add these to our network.

rendersetupGeo

What gives?! This doesn’t look right at all. Well, part of what’s happening is that we don’t have our camera and light positioned correctly to render the scene correctly. To make this easier to understand, let’s change up our work space so we can use the geometry viewer (one of my favorite tools). Let’s start by dividing the workspace into two windows. We can do this by using the split work space icon in the menu bar:

menu bar

I like the vertical split, but you can choose whatever arrangement works for you. When you initially click on this split you’ll see two views of your current network location:

split step1

In order to see the geometry viewer we need to change the pane type selection for one of our windows. Clicking on the small drop down triangle will reveal a menu of network views. Let’s select Geometry Viewer from the list.

pane type

 

You should now see your network on one side, and the geometry from our Geo comp on the other side.

geo viewer

Now we’re cooking with gas. Alright, let’s make our lives just a little easier and change the scale of our light and camera to make them easier to see. Click on your light COMP, if your parameters window has disappeared you can bring it back by pressing “p” on your keyboard.” In the scale parameter, let’s turn that up to 10, 10, 10.

light scale

Great, now we can see part of the reason that our scene isn’t rendering the way we want it to. Our light is currently set up as a point light that’s positioned at the edge of our geometry. Let’s make some changes to our light’s properties so we get something closer to what we want. Let’s start by changing the location of our light, I’m going to place mine at 0, 10, 0.

lightplacement

Now let’s take a look at the Light page of the parameter’s window. Here I’m going to change my light to a Cone, and alter the cone size, delta, and rolloff. Experiment with different settings here to find something that you like.

light properties

Before you get too much experimenting done, however, you’ll probably notice that the cone of our light isn’t pointing towards the surface of our geometry. We can fix this by heading back to the Xform page of the parameters window, and setting the rotation values to -90, 0, 0.

light ROT

With our light starting to take shape, let’s get our camera in order. Over at our camera, let’s make the same initial change we made to the light and turn the scale up to 10, 10, 10 – this is going to make it much easier for us to find our camera.

cameraScale

 

With the scale turned up we can see that our camera needs to be translated back, up and rotated downwards so it’s looking at the geometry. After a little bit of adjusting I think I like my camera at:

TX    0
TY    6.2
TZ    18.9
RX    -16.8
RY    0
RZ    0

cameraTrans

Boom! Alright, let’s close our geometry viewer and take a closer look at our Render TOP to see what we’ve made.

finalRender

Nice work. This is a good looking start, and now that you know how it’s made you can start to really have fun – camera placement, light placement, noise amplitude, you name it, go crazy, make something fun or weird, or just silly.

Inspired by Rutt Etra | TouchDesigner

Fall of the House of EscherBack when I was working on The Fall of the House of Escher I became obsessed with live z-displacement in the media. That particular show was wrestling with questions of quantum physics, time, reality, and all manner of perceptual problems and so it made a lot of sense to be love the look and suggested meaning inherent in the displacement of an image in a third dimension. This particular technique is perhaps most well known to us because of the Rutt Etra Video Synthesizer. This video synth was an attempt to begin manipulating video in same manner as sound was being manipulated in the 1970s, and was truly a ground breaking examination of our relationship to video – live video especially. One of the most famous elements of the Rutt Etra Synth was z displacement, the change in the depth of an image based on its luminance.

You can get a better sense of what this kind of effect looks like by playing with the Rutt Etra-izer online. This simple tool lets you play with one slice of what the original video synth did. Additionally, if you’re a mac user you might want to check out what v002 had to share when it comes to plug-ins, as well as some thoughts from Bill Etra. You can find more from v002 here: Rutt Etra v002

So that’s all well and good, but what am I after? Well, in the pursuit of better understanding how to program with TouchDesigner, as well as how to explore some of the interesting ideas from the 1970s, I wanted to know how to replicated this kind of look in a TouchDesigner network. There are plenty of other people who have done this already, and that’s awesome. I, however, happen to subscribe to the kind of art philosophy asks students to copy the work of others – to practice their hands at someone else’s technique, to take what works and leave what doesn’t. Art schools have often required students to copy the work of masters in order to foster a better appreciation and understanding of a particular form, and I think there’s a lot too that in programming. So today, we’ll look at how to make this kind of effect in TouchDesigner and then ask how we might manipulate this idea in ways that differ from how the original method was intended to  work.

Rutt Etra almostTo begin, this idea started when I was looking through the wiki page about Generative Design. Specifically, the sample network talking about image manipulation really got my attention. Buried in this example network is something that’s Rutt Etra flavored, and it’s from this example that I started to pull out some ideas to play with. As we work our way through this example it’ll be easy to get lost, frustrated, or confused. Before that happens to you, take a moment to think about what we’re trying to do. Ultimately, we want to take an image (video later, but for now an image) and add together the RGBA values of an individual pixel and use that number to transform said pixel in a z dimension. In other words, we’re really after creating a faux depth map out of an image. It’s also important to remember that using an image that’s 1920 x 1080 means we’re talking about 2,073,600 pixels. That’s a lot of points, so we’re going to start by creating a grid that simplifies those dimensions – partially for our own sanity, partially for the sake of the processing involved, and partially to remain true the aesthetic of the original idea. Once we replicate the original, then we can start to talk about where we can start to play. That’s enough disclaimers for us to get started, so let’s do some programming.

Let’s start by looking at the whole network:

From this vantage point we can see that we’re going to make a network that uses a little bit of everything – some texture operators (TOPs), some channel operators (CHOPs), and some surface operators (SOPs).

Starting with Texture Operators

First things first, let’s make a new container and dive inside. To our empty container let’s start by adding an In TOP as well as a Movie In TOP. We’re going to start by connecting the Movie In to the second input on the In TOP. Why? The Movie In TOP is going to allow us to pass a video stream into this container. We may, however, want some image to show up while we’re working or when we don’t have a video stream coming in; this is where that second input comes in handy. This gives us a default image to use when we don’t have a stream coming into the container. Here’s what you should have so far:

in

Next, we want to down sample some of this image. This step is actually helping us plan ahead, we’re going to use some expressions to set the parameters of some of our other operators, and this step is going to help us with that. To do this down-sampling, we’re going to use the Resolution TOP. After that we’ll end our TOP string in a Null TOP. All of that should look like this:

Rutt-TOPs

Before we move on, let’s make on change to the resolution TOP in our string. Open up the parameters window for your resolution TOP and on the common page change the Output Resolution parameter to Quarter:

resolution

 

Channel Operators

There are a number of different transformations that we’ll need to do with the data from our image, we’ll start this process by first moving to Channel operators. If we think back to where we started this process with an intent to transform luminance into depth, then we know that one of the operations we need to complete is to add together the RGBA values of our pixels in order to have a single number we can use to manipulate a surface. To get us started we first need to convert our image into channel data that we can manipulate. To do this we’re going to add a TOP to CHOP to our network. This operator is going to allow us to look at our TOP as if it were all Channel data. We’ll see what that looks like in a moment. First, however, let’s make a few changes to our operator. In the Image page for the TOP to make sure that you’re set to “Next Frame” as the download type. On the Crop page you’ll also want to make sure that you’re set to the full image:

Next we need to assign a TOP so we have a texture that we’re converting into Channel data. You can do this by dragging the TOP onto this CHOP, or you can enter in the name of the target TOP on the image page. Your TOP to CHOP, should now look something like this:

top to chop

This viewer on this operator can be taxing on your system, so at this point I’d recommend that you click the small bulls-eye in the upper left hand corner of your CHOP to turn off the viewer. This will save you some system resources as you’re working in your network and keep you from seeing too much lag while you’re editing this network.

The next series of channel operators is going to allow us to make some changes to our data. First we’ll use a Shuffle CHOP to reorganize our samples into sets of channels, then we’ll use some Math CHOPs to add together our pixel values and to give us some control over the z-displacement, and finally we’ll use a Rename CHOP to make it easy to use this data.

Let’s start this process by connecting our Top to CHOP to a Shuffle CHOP and setting our method to be Sequence Channels by Name:

shuffle

Next we’ll add our Math CHOP and set the combine channel operation to Add, let’s also set the multiply value to 1 /3:

math

Next we’re going to add a slider, and another Math CHOP. Why? Great question. For starters, I want to be able to control the strength of this effect with a slider. At some point I’m going to want to be able to drive the strength of this effect, and a slider is a great way for us to do that. Why another Math CHOP? Another excellent question. While we could just use one Math CHOP and apply our slider there, that also means that there’s no way to isolate the effect of the slider. There’s some redundancy here, but there’s also a little more flexibility in the isolation of applying different alterations to our data set. Is this the best way to code a final component, maybe not, but it is a fine way to work with something that’s still being developed. Alright, let’s add our slider and second Math CHOP:

slider math

Next we need to write a simple expression in our math2 operator in order to be able to use the slider as an input method. On the Multi-Add page we’re going to use the out value from the slider as the value that the incoming channel information is multiplied by – if we think about the structure of our slider’s output we’ll remember that it’s a normalized value ranging from 0 – 1, and we can think of this as being the same as 0 – 100%. Alright, here’s our simple reference expression:

op( ‘slider1/out1′ ) [ ‘v1′ ]

In plain English this expression reads: give me the number value of the channel called ‘v1′ from operator called ‘out1′ that’s inside of ‘slider1′. If you click on the + sign on the bottom right of your slider (making it viewer active) you can now move it left and right to see the change in the number value of your math2 CHOP.

simple referecne expression

Before we move away from this portion of our network we need to add one final operator, a Rename CHOP. The Rename CHOP allows us to rename the channels inside of an operator. Later we’ll want to be able to use this number to replace an value from a surface operator chain – in order to do that easily we need to rename this value. In the to field of the rename CHOP type tz:

rename

 

Surface Operators

Now that we have started the process of converting our Texture into a channel data, we need to think about what we’re going to do with that information. We’re going to start by adding a Grid SOP to our network. We’d like this operator to pull some of its dimensions from the our video – this will make sure that we’re dealing with a surface that’s the correct aspect ratio. In our Grid SOP we’re going to use some simple expressions to pull some information from our Null1 TOP (remember that our Null1 is at the end of our TOP chain). First we’ll use the height and width of our Texture to set the number of rows and columns – we can use the dot call method to ask for the height and width of our TOP with the following expressions for rows and cols:

op( ‘null1′ ).width
op( ‘null1′ ).height

Next we can use internally call the number of rows and columns to for our height and width with the expressions:

me.par.cols
me.par.rows

We’ll also want to make sure that we’ve set our grid to be a Polygon with Rows as the connectivity type.

Now we’ll need to get ready for our next step by adding a CHOP to SOP. This operator is going to allow us to create some geometry out our CHOP data.

chopto

What gives? Well, in order for this operator to work properly, we need to have some feed it some CHOP data.

 

Channel Operators Again

Now we’re finally making progress, even if it doesn’t feel like it just yet. For starters, we have our Texture Operators converted into channel data, we have a piece of geometry that we can alter based on the dimensions of the input Texture, and we’re ready to combine our Channel data with our Surface data, we just have some final house keeping to do.

Let’s start by first converting our Grid SOP to a CHOP with a SOP to CHOP.

sopto

Like we did before we’re going to use a Shuffle CHOP, but this time we’re going to set it to Sequence all Channels:

shuffle2

Next we’ll use a Math CHOP to find the absolute value of our shuffle – we can do this by setting the Channel Pre Op to be Positive:

absolute value

Next we’ll use an Analyze CHOP to find the maximum value coming out of our Math CHOP.

analyze

Now we’re going to normalize our data against itself. We’re going to add another Math CHOP to our network. We’ll connect it’s input to our sopto1 CHOP and in this case we’ll use the Multi-Add page and use 1 / the maxim from our analyze CHOP. We can do this with a simple reference expression:

1 / op( ‘analyze1′ ) [ ‘tx’ ]

All of that should look something like this:

MORE math

We can finally start putting all of this together with one more Math CHOP. This final Math CHOP is going to combine our SOP to string, and our TOP to string. You’ll want to make sure that the SOP string is in the first place on the Math CHOP, with the TOP string coming in underneath. Next make sure that Combine Channels is set to Add, and that Match By is set to Channel Name.

SOP TOP

Now let’s end this set of operations in a Null, and move back to where we left off with our surface operators. Back in our Chop to SOP, let’s set our CHOP reference to be our last CHOP null (in my case it’s Null2). All of that should finally look like this:

chop to 1

At long last we’ve finally transformed a grid in the z direction with the information from an input Texture. Ba da bing bang boom:

grid transformed

 

 

Rendering

Dear flying spaghetti monster help us… this is has been a lot of work, but so far it’s not very fancy. What gives? Well, if we really want to make something interesting out of this, we need to render it – that is, we need to change it from being just some geometric information back into some pixels. If we think back to what we learned while we were playing with Instancing, rendering isn’t too hard, we just need a few things to make it work (some geometry, a camera, and a light source… this time we’ll skip that last one).

Let’s start by adding a camera, and a geometry component to our network.

geo camera

For our render to work properly, we need our chopto SOP to be inside of our Geo. At this point you can use your favorite piece of profanity and get get ready to remake this network OR you can HOLD YOUR HORSES and think about how we might solve this problem. My favorite way to address this kind of issue is to jump inside of the geo component, add an In SOP and set it to render and display. This means that we can pass our geometry into this component without needing to encapsulate all of the geometry inside.

insop

Now let’s connect our chopto to our inlet on the Geo comp:

geo connect

Ideally we want the image from our original texture to be used when rendering our z transformation. To do this, let’s jump back inside of our Geo COMP and add a constant Material. A Constant, unlike a phong, isn’t shaded. In other words, it doesn’t render with shadows. While this isn’t great in some respects, the pay off is that it’s much cheaper to render. While we’re getting started, this is a fine material to start with. We’ll also want to make sure that our Constant is using our original TOP as a color Map. In the Color Map field we can tell this operator to look for the operator called in1 in the directory above with the following call:

../in1

constant mat

Next we need to apply this material to our Geo. To do that let’s jump out of the Geo comp and head to the render page of the parameters window. We can tell our Geo to look for the material called constant1 that’s inside of the geo comp like this:

./constant1

geoconstant

Holy macaroni, we’re almost there. The last step we need to take is to add a Render TOP to our network:

renderTOP

At long last we have finally replicated the z-translation aesthetic that we set out to emulate. From here you might consider changing the orientation of the geo comp, or the camera comp for a more interesting angle on your work.

 

Play Time

That’s all well and good, but how can we turn it up a little? Well, now that we have a portion of this built we can start to think about what the video stream going into this operation looks like, as well as how we modify the video coming out of it. Let’s look at  one example of what we can do with the video coming out.

I’ve made a few changes to our stream above (some simple moving animation, and changed the resolution op), to have something a little more interesting to play with but it’s still not quite right. One thing I want to look at is giving the lines a little more of a neon kind of look and feel. To do this I’m going to start by adding a Blur TOP to my network:

blur

Next I’m going to add an Add TOP and plug both of my TOPs into it, adding the blur back to the original render:

addblur

Finally, I’m going to add a Constant TOP set to black, and a Composite TOP. I’ll composite my Add TOP and my Constant TOP together to end with a final composition:

composite

Now it’s your turn to play. What happens when you play with the signal processing after your render, what happens when you alter the video stream heading into this component. Also, don’t forget that we built a slider that controls the strength of the effect – play and make something fun.

rutrut

 

Looking to take a closer look at what makes this process work? Download the tox file and see what makes this thing tick: rut

Instant Instancing | TouchDesigner

Instant Instance“What if I want ten-thousand. Literally. Ten Thousand.” Back when Wonder Dome was in full swing I had the great honor of meeting some of the folks from Concordia’s Topological Media Lab. While some of their folks were in residence with ASU’s school of Arts Engineering and Media. They’ve spent a significant chunk of time building a system that they call Ozone, which is largely powered by Max MSP and Jitter. While they were visiting with us at Wonder Dome, they had lots of questions about TouchDesigner, how it works and how it was working for us. We talked bout a number of different things that day, but my favorite moment came over lunch. We were talking about making surfaces, and the flexibility and challenges involved. After we had added a sphere to our network, one of the team members asked me “what if I want to make a lot of them. What if I want to make ten-thousand. Literally. Ten Thousand.” There are lots of ways you might do this, but one of my favorite ways to think about making multiple copies of the same object is with instancing.

Say what now?

βατόμουρο / Raspberries by Fir0002/Flagstaffotos

βατόμουρο / Raspberries by Fir0002/Flagstaffotos image by flickr user Duncan Hall

Instancing is a fun way to make lots of copies of a piece of geometry and to place those copies very specifically. On the face of it, that sounds a bit academic. Let’s look at a specific example to unwrap that idea a little bit. Let’s look at a raspberry. We can think of a raspberry in a few different ways. On the one hand it’s a small oval like berry. At the same time if we look closer we can think of this single object as an array of spheres tucked next to one another in a patterned way. Instancing, as a method, allows us to do something like this relatively easily and quickly. On top of that, it’s a ton of fun, and unlocks a whole new set of possibilities when it comes to creating geometry in TouchDesigner.

So where do we start?! Well, we need to start by taking some time to do a little bit of thinking about how instancing works. For starters, instancing is something that you do to a Geometry COMP. As a component, we can do things with Geo’s that we can’t do with regular surface operators. A Geometry COMP is also one of the main ingredients when it comes to rendering surfaces. First we’ll look at how we can work with the Geometry COMP, then we’ll talk about what that means when it comes to rendering.

Okay. Let’s start in an empty network and create a new Geometry COMP.

geo

We could just work with the torus that’s in our Geo to get started, but let’s make a few changes so we have something that’s a little more fun to play with. Dive into your geo, and let’s get situated.

inside the geo

Inside our geo you should only see a single surface operator, a Torus SOP. You should also notice that there’s a little purple dot, and a little blue dot that are in the bottom right hand corner. These are two of the Operator’s flags – the purple dot is the render flag, and the blue dot is the display flag. Flags let you change the behavior of your operators in some interesting ways. The render flag, like it’s name, tells you if something is being rendered or not. Why not render something?! Well, you might find yourself in a situation where you need a SOP to help control the movement of another piece of geometry, but you don’t necessarily want that guiding element to be rendered. In this case you’d want to make sure the render flag is off. The display flag allows a SOP to be seen in the Geometry viewer. Like our other example, there might be a time when you don’t want to display a particular SOP while you’re making a change, in this case you’d want to make sure the display flag is off. There’s lots more to say about Flags, but that should be enough to make you dangerous.

Alright, now that we know a little more about what’s happening in our Geo let’s make some changes. For starters, let’s delete the Torus, and add a Sphere SOP and a Null SOP. Let’s connect these two operators, and make sure that we turn on the display and render flags on the bottom right corner of our Null. While we’re here let’s change the name of our null to DISP for Display.

sphere

Let’s also change the size of our sphere. In the radius parameter field lets change the three values to 0.15.

smaller sphere

Now when we back out of our Geo we should see our sphere instead of a torus.

sphere geo

Alright. Now we’re going to add another sphere to our network, but this time at the same level as our Geo. Let’s also connect that Sphere to a null.

sphere null geo

The next part is gonna start to get funky, so let’s help ourselves out before the world starts to turn upside down on us. Head over to your sphere, and make it viewer active (hit the small + in the bottom right corner), next hit the letter w on your keyboard. What you should now see is the wire frame of your Sphere SOP.

wire sphere

Okay. Let’s just leave that be for now, but know that we’re going to come back to it so we can better understand what’s coming next. Now we’re going to add a SOP to CHOP to our network.

sop to

The SOP to CHOP is a special kind of operator that allows us to change one type of operator to another. In our case, we’re going to change our null1 into CHOP data. To do this, we’re going to grab our SOP null1 and drag it on top of our CHOP sopto1.

soptochop

What manner of witch-craft is this?! Alright, what we’re looking at is the channel information from our SOP. Let’s think back to our wire frame Sphere for a moment. Each one of those intersecting lines represents a point. Each point has three values associated with it in terms of position – x, y, and z. Our SOP to CHOP is giving us a graph that represents all of those points. That’s awesome.

Why is that so awesome? Because now we can instance like there’s no tomorrow. Let’s head over to our Geo COMP and take a look at a few things. If we look at the parameters of this COMP, we’ll notice a page called Instance. Click that bad boy. Here we want to do a few things. First we want to turn on Instancing. Next we’re going to tell our Geo that we’d like to use our CHOP called sopto1. The last thing we need to do here is to help our Geo understand what to do with our CHOP data. In our case we’re going to tell the Geo to use tx for tx, ty for ty, and tz for tz – we’re matching up the location of our points from our Sphere to the points where we’d like instances of our geo. If that doesn’t make sense, that’s okay – for now follow along and this should make more sense soon.

instance

Now if we look at our network we can see some of the magic that’s happening with instancing.

networkinstance

To get a sense of how powerful this really is, let’s go back to our Sphere here in our parent network. In the parameters page, let’s change this sphere from being drawn as a mesh to being drawn as polygons.

polygons

We can now see that our instances are happening at each of the vertices of our polygon. Let’s try one more change to see how this powerful this is. For starters, let’s turn up the frequency count – I’m going to turn mine up to 10. Next let’s add a Noise SOP to our chain of operators between the Sphere and the Null.

noise instance

Now we’re starting to see some magic happen. At this point we’re now transforming the position of our instanced spheres with a noise algorithm that’s being applied to our original geometry.

An Aside About Efficiency 
As a quick note, it’s important to consider that this is not the most efficient way we could have programmed this. In TouchDesigner SOPs are a CPU operation, unless they’re encapsulated inside of a Geo COMP. What does this mean? Well, it means that the noise SOP in our network is a CPU operation, and not a GPU operation and depending on your machine for this example your mileage may vary.

Alright, so now we’ve made something awesome… but how do I use it?! Well, in order to actually use something like this in a project we need to render this geometry. Rendering requires a few different things to be in place, we need something to render (a Geometry COMP), a perspective to render it from (a Camera COMP), and a light (a Light COMP, we don’t always need a light but for now lets add one anyways). Let’s start by adding those COMPs to the network.

render network

Alright, now we can add our final ingredient to our network, a Render TOP. Our render TOP is going to use the three COMPs in our network to actually draw the pixel values of our scene. At this point your network should look something like this:

whole network

Nice work. You’ve not instanced your first set of geometry and rendered it. Now for extra credit, go back and consider changing some of your source SOPs… what happens if you change what’s in your Geo into a box or torus? What happens if you change your Sphere in the parent network into a grid instead? Happy instancing.

noise cubes